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International Copyright Relations of the United States

International Copyright Relations of the United States CC BY ND - U.S. Embassy The Hague

There is no such thing as an “international copyright” that will automatically protect an author’s writings throughout the world. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular country depends on the national laws of that country.

Many countries offer protection to foreign works under certain conditions that have been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions. This circular provides a brief overview of the international conventions, treaties, and other bilateral instruments that the United States has concluded with other countries, and it details the participation of other countries in these same instruments.

The United States is a member of many treaties and conventions affecting copyright, including those administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works; the WIPO Copyright Treaty; the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty; the Geneva Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms; and the Brussels Convention Relating to the Distribution of Program-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization administers the Universal Copyright Convention.

The World Trade Organization administers the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which sets forth obligations related to intellectual property rights, including copyright and enforcement measures, in the context of a multilateral trade agreement.

The treaties and conventions noted above include substantive obligations. Many also define “points of attachment,” the factors that connect an eligible work to be protected among treaty member countries. An author’s nationality or the place a work was first published are examples of points of attachment. Sections 104 and 104a of the U.S. Copyright Act specify the scope of protection for unpublished and published foreign works.

In addition to international treaties and conventions, other instruments, such as free trade agreements, require member countries to comply with specific obligations. Building on TRIPS, the free trade agreements concluded by the United States require the parties to have robust copyright laws and enforcement measures. A bilateral free trade agreement between the United States and another country does not usually create a first point of attachment for a U.S. work in that other country, or vice versa (the two parties are usually already members of international treaties). Specific facts, circumstances, and national laws are important in any international copyright analysis.

Recent international developments have resulted in two new WIPO copyright treaties: the Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances and the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled. Neither treaty has entered into force yet.

If you seek copyright protection for your U.S. work in another country, it is important to determine the points of attachment under that country’s copyright system. If possible, do this before your work is published anywhere, because protection may depend on the facts existing at the time of first publication. The scope of protection available in that country will then turn on the substantive provisions available under that country’s law and practice. Keep in mind, however, that some countries offer little or no copyright protection to foreign works.

For more information on the scope of copyright protection provided by other countries, you may want to consult a legal expert familiar with foreign and U.S. copyright laws.

The U.S. Copyright Office is not permitted to recommend attorneys or agents to give legal advice on foreign or domestic laws.

Relations as of January 2014

This publication documents the countries that are parties to specific multilateral copyright conventions or agreements, as well as those that have specific bilateral relationships with the United States. The relevant agreements and their abbreviations are listed below. A list of countries follows, indicating which agreements each country has signed and the date each agreement took effect.

Agreements and Treaties

  • BAC: Buenos Aires Convention of 1910. U. S. ratification deposited with the government of Argentina, May 1, 1911; proclaimed by the president of the United States, July 13, 1914.
  • BTAP1: Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances. On June 26, 2012, the United States and 47 other nations signed the treaty. It will enter into force once 30 eligible parties, including countries or certain intergovernmental organizations, ratify it.
  • Berne: Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Appearing within parentheses in the country listing that follows is the latest act of the convention to which the country is party. Thus “Berne (Paris)” means the Berne Convention as revised at Paris on July 24, 1971, and as amended on September 28, 1979. “Berne (Brussels)” means the convention as revised at Brussels on June 26, 1948. “Berne (Rome)” means the convention as revised at Rome on June 2, 1928. Other acts of the convention were revised at Stockholm on July 14, 1967, and at Berlin on Nov. 13, 1908. In each case, a reference to a particular act signifies adherence only to the substantive provisions of the act. For example, the substantive provisions of Berne (Paris) include articles 1 to 21 and the appendix; articles 22 to 38 deal with administrative provisions of the convention. The effective date for U.S. adherence to the Berne Convention is Mar. 1, 1989.
  • Bilateral: Bilateral copyright relations with the United States by virtue of a proclamation, or treaty. Where there is more than one proclamation or treaty, only the date of the first one is given.
  • FTA: Free Trade Agreement. The United States has concluded comprehensive free trade agreements (many bilaterally, some regionally) with multiple countries. With the exception of the U.S.-Israel agreement, the FTAs contain chapters on intellectual property rights, which include substantive copyright law and enforcement obligations.
  • None: No known copyright relations with the United States.
  • Phonograms: Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms, Geneva, 1971. The effective date for the United States is Mar. 10, 1974.
  • SAT: Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite, Brussels, 1974. The effective date for the United States is Mar. 7, 1985.
  • UCC Geneva: Universal Copyright Convention, Geneva, 1952. The effective date for the United States is Sept. 16, 1955, the date the treaty entered into force.
  • UCC Paris: Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris, 1971. The effective date for the United States is July 10, 1974, the date the treaty entered into force.
  • Unclear: Copyright relations status is unclear; a country may not have established copyright relations with the United States but may be honoring obligations incurred under a former political status, including possible relationships as a territory.
  • VIP: The Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled. This treaty was adopted on June 27, 2013. It will enter into force once 20 eligible parties, including countries or certain intergovernmental organizations, ratify it.
  • WCT: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Copyright Treaty, Geneva, 1996. The effective date for the United States is Mar. 6, 2002, the date the treaty entered into force.
  • WPPT: WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, Geneva, 1996. The effective date for the United States is May 20, 2002, the date the treaty entered into force.
  • WTO: World Trade Organization (WTO), established pursuant to the Marrakesh Agreement of Apr. 15, 1994, to implement the Uruguay Round Agreements. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is one of the WTO agreements. It includes substantive obligations for the protection of copyright and other intelectual property rights as well as their enforcement. The effective date of United States membership in the WTO is Jan. 1, 1995.

Treaty Membership

Convention or Treaty 

Member Parties, including United States

Berne (various texts)  167
Phonograms  78
SAT  35
UCC Geneva  100
UCC Paris  65
WCT  91
WPPT  92
WTO  159

Countries

  • Afghanistan: None
  • Albania: Berne (Paris) Mar. 6, 1994; WTO Sept. 8, 2000; Phonograms June 26, 2001; WPPT May 20, 2002; UCC Geneva Feb. 4, 2004; UCC Paris Feb. 4, 2004; WCT Aug. 6, 2005
  • Algeria: UCC Geneva Aug. 28, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Berne (Paris) Apr. 19, 1998; WCT Jan. 31, 2014; WPPT Jan. 31, 2014
  • Andorra: UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) June 2, 2004
  • Angola: WTO Nov. 23, 1996
  • Antigua and Barbuda: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Mar. 17, 2000
  • Argentina: Bilateral Aug. 23, 1934; BAC Apr. 19, 1950; UCC Geneva Feb. 13, 1958; Berne (Paris) June 10, 1967; Phonogram June 30, 1973; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Armenia: SAT Dec. 13, 1993; Berne (Paris) Oct. 19, 2000; Phonograms Jan. 31, 2003; WTO Feb. 5, 2003; WCT Mar. 6, 2005; WPPT Mar. 6, 2005
  • Australia: Bilateral Mar. 15, 1918; Berne (Paris) Apr. 14, 1928; UCC Geneva May 1, 1969; Phonograms June 22, 1974; UCC Paris Feb. 29, 1978; SAT Oct. 26, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; FTA Jan. 1, 2005⁴; WCT July 26, 2007; WPPT July 26, 2007
  • Austria: Bilateral Sept. 20, 1907; Berne (Paris) Oct. 1, 1920; UCC Geneva July 2, 1957; SAT Aug. 6, 1982; UCC Paris Aug. 14, 1982; Phonograms Aug. 21, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Azerbaijan: UCC Geneva Apr. 7, 1997; Berne (Paris) June 4, 1999; Phonograms Sept. 1, 2001; WCT Apr. 11, 2006; WPPT Apr. 11, 2006
  • Bahamas: Berne (Brussels) July 10, 1973; UCC Geneva July 13, 1976; UCC Paris Dec. 27, 1976
  • Bahrain: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Mar. 2, 1997; WCT Dec. 15, 2005; WPPT Dec. 15, 2005; FTA Jan. 11, 2006⁶; SAT May 1, 2007
  • Bangladesh: UCC Geneva Aug. 5, 1975; UCC Paris Aug. 5, 1975; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) May 4, 1999
  • Barbados: UCC Geneva June 18, 1983; UCC Paris June 18, 1983; Berne (Paris) July 30, 1983; Phonograms July 29, 1983; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Belarus: UCC Geneva Mar. 29, 1994; Berne (Paris) Dec. 12, 1997; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; Phonograms Apr. 17, 2003
  • Belgium: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891⁷; UCC Geneva Aug. 31, 1960; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Aug. 30, 2006; WPPT Aug. 30, 2006
  • Belize: UCC Geneva Dec. 1, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) June 17, 2000
  • Benin: Berne (Paris) Jan. 3, 1961; WTO Feb. 22, 1996; WCT Apr. 16, 2006; WPPT Apr. 16, 2006
  • Bhutan: Berne (Paris) Nov. 25, 2004
  • Bolivia: BAC May 15, 1914; UCC Geneva Mar. 22, 1990; UCC Paris Mar. 22, 1990; Berne (Paris) Nov. 4, 1993; WTO Sept. 12, 1995
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina:  Berne (Paris) Mar. 1, 1992; UCC Geneva July 12, 1993; UCC Paris July 12, 1993; SAT Jan. 12, 1994; Phonograms May 25, 2009; WCT Nov. 25, 2009; WPPT Nov. 25, 2009
  • Botswana: WTO May 31, 1995; Berne (Paris) Apr. 15, 1998; WCT Jan. 27, 2005; WPPT Jan. 27, 2005
  • Brazil: BAC Aug. 31, 1915; Berne (Paris) Feb. 9, 1922; Bilateral Apr. 2, 1957; UCC Geneva Jan. 13, 1960; Phonograms Nov. 28, 1975; UCC Paris Dec. 11, 1975; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Brunei: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 30, 2006
  • Bulgaria: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1921; UCC Geneva June 7, 1975; UCC Paris June 7, 1975; Phonograms Sept. 6, 1995; WTO Dec. 1, 1996; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Burkina Faso: Berne (Paris) Aug. 19, 1963; Phonograms Jan 30, 1988; WTO June 3, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Burundi: WTO July 23, 1995
  • Cambodia: UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; WTO Oct. 13, 2004
  • Cameroon: Berne (Paris) Sept. 21, 1964; UCC Geneva May 1, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Dec. 13, 1995
  • Canada: Bilateral Jan. 1, 1924; Berne (Paris) Apr. 10, 1928; UCC Geneva Aug. 10, 1962; FTA Jan. 1, 1994⁸; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Cape Verde: Berne (Paris) July 7, 1997; WTO July 23, 2008
  • Central African Republic: Berne (Paris) Sept. 3, 1977; WTO May 31, 1995
  • Chad: Berne (Brussels/Stockholm) Nov. 25, 1971; WTO Oct. 19, 1996
  • Chile: Bilateral May 25, 1896; BAC June 14, 1955; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) June 5, 1970; Phonograms Mar. 24, 1977; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; FTA Jan. 1, 2004
  • China: Bilateral Jan. 13, 1904; Bilateral Nov. 30, 1948; Bilateral Mar. 17, 199211; Berne (Paris) Oct. 15, 1992; UCC Geneva Oct. 30, 1992; UCC Paris Oct. 30, 1992; Phonograms Apr. 30, 1993; WTO Dec. 11, 2001; WCT June 9, 2007; WPPT June 9, 2007
  • Chinese Taipei (Taiwan): WTO Jan. 1, 2002
  • Colombia: BAC Dec. 23, 1936; UCC Geneva June 18, 1976; UCC Paris June 18, 1976; Berne (Paris) Mar. 7, 1988; Phonograms May 16, 1994; WTO Apr. 30, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; FTA May 15, 2012
  • Comoros: Berne (Paris) Apr. 17, 2005
  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the: Berne (Paris) Oct. 8, 1963; WTO Jan. 1, 1997; Phonograms Nov. 29, 1977
  • Congo: Berne (Paris) May 8, 1962; WTO Mar. 27, 1997
  • Costa Rica: Bilateral Oct. 19, 1899; BAC Nov. 30, 1916; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) June 10, 1978; UCC Paris Mar. 7, 1980; Phonograms June 17, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; SAT June 25, 1999; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; FTA Jan. 1, 2009
  • Cote d’Ivoire: Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1962; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Croatia: Berne (Paris) Oct. 8, 1991; UCC Paris July 6, 1992; UCC Geneva July 6, 1992; SAT July 26, 1993; Phonograms Apr. 20, 2000; WTO Nov. 30, 2000; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Cuba: Bilateral Nov. 17, 1903; BAC May 28, 1913; UCC Geneva June 18, 1957; WTO Apr. 20, 1995; Berne (Paris) Feb. 20, 1997
  • Cyprus: Berne (Paris) Feb. 24, 1964; UCC Geneva Dec. 19, 1990; UCC Paris Dec. 19, 1990; Phonograms Sept. 30, 1993; WTO July 30, 1995; WCT Nov. 4, 2003; WPPT Dec. 2, 2005
  • Czech Republic: Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1993; Phonograms Jan. 1, 1993; UCC Geneva Mar. 26, 1993; UCC Paris Mar. 26, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Denmark: Bilateral May 8, 1893; Berne (Paris) July 1, 1903; UCC Geneva Feb. 9, 1962; Phonograms Mar. 24, 1977; UCC Paris July 11, 1979; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Djibouti: WTO May 31, 1995; Berne (Paris) May 13, 2002
  • Dominica: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 7, 1999
  • Dominican Republic: BAC Oct. 31, 1912; UCC Geneva May 8, 1983; UCC Paris May 8, 1983; WTO Mar. 9, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 24, 1997; WCT Jan. 10, 2006; WPPT Jan. 10, 2006; FTA Mar. 1, 2007
  • Ecuador: BAC Aug. 31, 1914; UCC Geneva June 5, 1957; Phonograms Sept. 14, 1974; UCC Paris Sept. 6, 1991; Berne (Paris) Oct. 9, 1991; WTO Jan. 21, 1996; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Egypt: Berne (Paris) June 7, 1977; Phonograms Apr. 23, 1978; WTO June 30, 1995
  • El Salvador: Bilateral June 30, 1908; Phonograms Feb. 9, 1979; UCC Geneva Mar. 29, 1979; UCC Paris Mar. 29, 1979; Berne (Paris) Feb. 19, 1994; WTO May 7, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; FTA Mar. 1, 200613; SAT July 22, 2008
  • Equatorial Guinea: Berne (Paris) June 26, 1997
  • Eritrea: None
  • Estonia: Berne (Paris) Oct. 26, 1994; WTO Nov. 13, 1999; Phonograms May 28, 2000; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Ethiopia: None
  • European Union: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Fiji: Berne (Brussels) Dec. 1, 1971; UCC Geneva Dec. 13, 1971; Phonograms Apr. 18, 1973; WTO Jan. 14, 1996
  • Finland: Berne (Paris) Apr. 1, 1928; Bilateral Jan. 1, 1929; UCC Geneva Apr. 16, 1963; Phonograms Apr. 18, 1973; UCC Paris Nov. 1, 1986; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • France: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891; UCC Geneva Jan. 14, 1956; Phonograms Apr. 18, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Gabon: Berne (Paris) Mar. 26, 1962; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Gambia, The: Berne (Paris) Mar. 7, 1993; WTO Oct. 23, 1996
  • Georgia: Berne (Paris) May 16, 1995; WTO June 14, 2000; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Germany: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 18871⁷; Bilateral Apr. 15, 1892; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Bilateral July 12, 1967; Phonograms May 18, 1974; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Ghana: UCC Geneva Aug. 22, 1962; Berne (Paris) Oct. 11, 1991; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Nov. 18, 2006; WPPT Feb. 16, 2013
  • Greece: Berne (Paris) Nov. 9, 1920; Bilateral Mar. 1, 1932; UCC Geneva Aug. 24, 1963; SAT Oct. 22, 1991; Phonograms Feb. 9, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Grenada: WTO Feb. 22, 1996; Berne (Paris) Sept. 22, 1998
  • Guatemala: BAC Mar. 28, 1913; UCC Geneva Oct. 28, 1964; Phonograms Feb. 1, 1977; WTO July 21, 1995; Berne (Paris) July 28, 1997; WPPT Jan. 8, 2003; WCT Feb. 4, 2003; FTA July 1, 2006
  • Guinea: Berne (Paris) Nov. 20, 1980; UCC Geneva Nov. 13, 1981; UCC Paris Nov. 13, 1981; WTO Oct. 25, 1995; WCT May 25, 2002; WPPT May 25, 2002
  • Guinea-Bissau: Berne (Paris) July 22, 1991; WTO May 31, 1995
  • Guyana: Berne (Paris) Oct. 25, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Haiti: BAC Nov. 27, 1919; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) Jan. 11, 1996; WTO Jan. 30, 1996
  • Holy See: Berne (Paris) Sept. 12, 1935; UCC Geneva Oct. 5, 1955; Phonograms July 18, 1977; UCC Paris May 6, 1980
  • Honduras: BAC Apr. 27, 1914; Berne (Paris) Jan. 25, 1990; Phonograms Mar. 6, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT May 20, 2002 ; WPPT May 20, 2002; FTA Apr. 1, 200613; SAT Apr. 7, 2008
  • Hong Kong, China: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) July 1, 1997; Phonograms July 1, 1997
  • Hungary: Bilateral Oct. 16, 1912; Berne (Paris) Feb. 14, 1922; UCC Geneva Jan. 23, 1971; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Phonograms May 28, 1975; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Iceland: Berne (Paris) Sept. 7, 1947; UCC Geneva Dec. 18, 1956; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • India: Berne (Paris) Apr. 1, 1928; Bilateral Aug. 15, 1947; UCC Geneva Jan. 21, 1958; Phonograms Feb. 12, 1975; UCC Paris Apr. 7, 1988; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Indonesia: Bilateral Aug. 1, 1989; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Sept. 5, 1997; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT Feb. 15, 2005
  • Iran: None
  • Iraq: None
  • Ireland: Berne (Paris) Oct. 5, 1927; Bilateral Oct. 1, 1929; UCC Geneva Jan. 20, 1959; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Israel: Bilateral May 15, 1948; Berne (Paris) Mar. 24, 1950; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Phonograms May 1, 1978; FTA Aug. 19, 1985; Bilateral Sept. 1, 1985; WTO Apr. 21, 1995
  • Italy: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral Oct. 31, 1892; Bilateral May 1, 1915; UCC Geneva Jan. 24, 1957; Phonograms Mar. 24, 1977; UCC Paris Jan. 25, 1980; SAT July 7, 1981; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Jamaica: Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1994; Phonograms Jan. 11, 1994; WTO Mar. 9, 1995; SAT Jan. 12, 2000; WCT June 12, 2002; WPPT June 12, 2002
  • Japan: Berne (Paris) July 15, 1899; Bilateral May 10, 1906; UCC Geneva Apr. 28, 1956; UCC Paris Oct. 21, 1977; Phonograms Oct. 14, 1978; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT Oct. 9, 2002
  • Jordan: Berne (Paris) July 28, 1999; WTO Apr. 11, 2000; FTA Dec. 17, 200121; WCT Apr. 27, 2004; WPPT May 24, 2004
  • Kazakhstan: UCC Geneva Aug. 6, 1992; Berne (Paris) Apr. 12, 1999; Phonograms Aug. 3, 2001; WCT Nov. 12, 2004; WPPT Nov. 12, 2004
  • Kenya: UCC Geneva Sept. 7, 1966; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Phonograms Apr. 21, 1976; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; Berne (Paris) June 11, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Kiribati: Unclear
  • Korea, Democratic People's Republic of North: Berne (Paris) Apr. 28, 2003
  • Korea, Republic of: UCC Geneva Oct. 1, 1987; UCC Paris Oct. 1, 1987; Phonograms Oct. 10, 1987; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 21, 1996; WCT June 24, 2004; WPPT Mar. 18, 2009; FTA Mar. 15, 2012
  • Kuwait: WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Kyrgyz Republic: WTO Dec. 20, 1998; Berne (Paris) July 8, 1999; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT Aug. 15, 2002; Phonograms Oct. 12, 2002
  • Lao People's Democratic Republic: UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne Mar. 14, 2012; WTO Feb. 2, 2013
  • Latvia: Berne (Paris) Aug. 11, 1995; Phonograms Aug. 23, 1997; WTO Feb. 10, 1999; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Lebanon: Berne (Rome) Sept. 30, 1947; UCC Geneva Oct. 17, 1959
  • Lesotho: Berne (Paris) Sept. 28, 1989; WTO May 31, 1995
  • Liberia: UCC Geneva July 27, 1956; Berne (Paris) Mar. 8, 1989; Phonograms Dec. 16, 2005
  • Libya: Berne (Paris) Sept. 28, 1976
  • Liechtenstein: Berne (Paris) July 30, 1931; UCC Geneva Jan. 22, 1959; WTO Sept. 1, 1995; Phonograms Oct. 12, 1999; UCC Paris Nov. 11, 1999; WCT Apr. 30, 2007; WPPT Apr. 30, 2007
  • Lithuania: Berne (Paris) Dec. 14, 1994; Phonograms Jan. 27, 2000; WTO May 31, 2001; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Luxembourg: Berne (Paris) June 20, 1888; Bilateral (two) June 29, 1910; UCC Geneva Oct. 15, 1955; Phonograms Mar. 8, 1976; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Macau, China: WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of: Berne (Paris) Sept. 8, 1991; SAT Sept. 2, 1977; UCC Geneva Apr. 30, 1997; UCC Paris Apr. 30, 1997; Phonograms Mar. 2, 1998; WTO Apr. 4, 2003; WCT Feb. 4, 2004; WPPT Mar. 20, 2005
  • Madagascar: Berne (Brussels) Jan. 1, 1966; WTO Nov. 17, 1995
  • Malawi: UCC Geneva Oct. 26, 1965; Berne (Paris) Oct. 12, 1991; WTO May 31, 1995
  • Malaysia: Berne (Paris) Oct. 1, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Dec. 27, 2012; WPPT Dec. 27, 2012
  • Maldives: WTO May 31, 1995
  • Mali: Berne (Rome) Mar. 19, 1962; WTO May 31, 1995; WCT Apr. 24, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Malta: Berne (Rome) Sept. 21, 1964; UCC Geneva Nov. 19, 1968; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Mauritania: Berne (Paris) Feb. 6, 1973; WTO May 31, 1995
  • Mauritius: UCC Geneva Aug. 20, 1970; Berne (Paris) May 10, 1989; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Mexico: Bilateral Feb. 27, 1896; UCC Geneva May 12, 1957; BAC Apr. 24, 1964; Berne (Paris) June 11, 1967; Phonograms Dec. 21, 1973; UCC Paris Oct. 31, 1975; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; FTA Jan. 1, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Micronesia, Federated States of: Berne (Paris) Oct. 7, 2003
  • Moldova: UCC Geneva June 23, 1997; Berne (Paris) Nov. 2, 1995; Phonograms July 17, 2000; WTO July 26, 2001; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; SAT Oct. 28, 2008
  • Monaco: Berne (Paris) May 30, 1889; Bilateral Oct. 15, 1952; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Phonograms Dec. 2, 1974; UCC Paris Dec. 13, 1974
  • Mongolia: WTO Jan. 29, 1997; Berne (Paris) Mar. 12, 1998; WCT Oct. 25, 2002; WPPT Oct. 25, 2002
  • Montenegro: Berne (Paris) June 3, 2006; Phonograms June 3, 2006; WCT June 3, 2006; WPPT June 3, 2006; SAT Oct. 23, 2006; UCC Geneva Apr. 26, 2007; UCC Paris Apr. 26, 2007; WTO Apr. 29, 2012
  • Morocco: Berne (Paris) June 16, 1917; UCC Geneva May 8, 1972; UCC Paris Jan. 28, 1976; SAT June 30, 1983; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; FTA Jan. 1, 200623; WCT July 20, 2011; WPPT July 20, 2011
  • Mozambique: WTO Aug. 26, 1995; Berne Nov. 22, 2013
  • Myanmar, Union of: WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Namibia: Berne (Paris) Mar. 21, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Nauru: Unclear
  • Nepal: WTO Apr. 23, 2004; Berne (Paris) Jan. 11, 2006
  • Netherlands: Bilateral Nov. 20, 1899; Berne (Paris) Nov. 1, 1912; UCC Geneva June 22, 1967; UCC Paris Nov. 30, 1985; Phonograms Oct. 12, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • New Zealand: Bilateral Dec. 1, 1916; Berne (Rome) Apr. 24, 1928; UCC Geneva Sept. 11, 1964; Phonograms Aug. 13, 1976; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Nicaragua: BAC Dec. 15, 1913; UCC Geneva Aug. 16, 1961; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; WTO Sept. 3, 1995; Phonograms Aug. 10, 2000; Berne (Paris) Aug. 23, 2000; WCT Mar. 6, 2003; WPPT Mar. 6, 2003; FTA Apr. 1, 200613
  • Niger: Berne (Paris) May 2, 1962; UCC Geneva May 15, 1989; UCC Paris May 15, 1989; WTO Dec. 13, 1996
  • Nigeria: UCC Geneva Feb. 14, 1962; Berne (Paris) Sept. 14, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Norway: Berne (Paris) Apr. 13, 1896; Bilateral July 1, 1905; UCC Geneva Jan. 23, 1963; UCC Paris Aug. 7, 1974; Phonograms Aug. 1, 1978; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Oman: Berne (Paris) July 14, 1999; WTO Nov. 9, 2000; WCT Sept. 20, 2005; WPPT Sept. 20, 2005; SAT Mar. 18, 2008; FTA Jan. 1, 20092
  • Pakistan: Berne (Rome) July 5, 1948; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Palau: Unclear
  • Panama: BAC Nov. 25, 1913; UCC Geneva Oct. 17, 1962; Phonograms June 29, 1974; UCC Paris Sept. 3, 1980; SAT Sept. 25, 1985; Berne (Paris) June 8, 1996; WTO Sept. 6, 1997; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; FTA Oct. 21, 20122⁶
  • Papua New Guinea: WTO June 9, 1996
  • Paraguay: BAC Sept. 20, 1917; UCC Geneva Mar. 11, 1962; Phonograms Feb. 13, 1979; Berne (Paris) Jan. 2, 1992; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Peru: BAC Apr. 30, 1920; UCC Geneva Oct. 16, 1963; UCC Paris July 22, 1985; SAT Aug. 7, 1985; Phonograms Aug. 24, 1985; Berne (Paris) Aug. 20, 1988; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT July 18, 2002; FTA Feb. 1, 20092⁷
  • Philippines: Bilateral Oct. 21, 1948; Berne (Paris) Aug. 1, 1951; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Oct. 4, 2002; WPPT Oct. 4, 2002
  • Poland: Berne (Paris) Jan. 28, 1920; Bilateral Feb. 16, 1927; UCC Geneva Mar. 9, 1977; UCC Paris Mar. 9, 1977; WTO July 1, 1995; WPPT Oct. 21, 2003; WCT Mar. 23, 2004
  • Portugal: Bilateral July 20, 1893; Berne (Paris) Mar. 29, 1911; UCC Geneva Dec. 25, 1956; UCC Paris July 30, 1981; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; SAT Mar. 11, 1996; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Qatar: WTO Jan. 13, 1996; Berne (Paris) July 5, 2000; WCT Oct. 28, 2005; WPPT Oct. 28, 2005
  • Romania: Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1927; Bilateral May 14, 1928; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Phonograms Oct. 1, 1998; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Russian Federation: UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; SAT Jan. 20, 1989; UCC Paris Mar. 9, 1995; Berne (Paris) Mar. 13, 1995; Phonograms Mar. 13, 1995; WCT Feb. 5, 2009; WPPT Feb. 5, 2009; WTO Aug. 22, 2012
  • Rwanda: Berne (Paris) Mar. 1, 1984; UCC Geneva Nov. 10, 1989; UCC Paris Nov. 10, 1989; WTO May 22, 1996; SAT July 25, 2001
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis: Berne (Paris) Apr. 9, 1995; WTO Feb.21, 1996
  • Saint Lucia: Berne (Paris) Aug. 24, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Phonograms Apr. 2, 2001; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: UCC Geneva Jan. 22, 1985; UCC Paris Jan. 22, 1985; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 29, 1995; WPPT Feb. 12, 2011
  • Samoa: Berne (Paris) July 21, 2006; WTO May 10, 2012
  • San Marino: None
  • Sao Tome and Principe: Unclear
  • Saudi Arabia: UCC Geneva July 13, 1994 ; UCC Paris July 13, 1994; Berne (Paris) Mar. 11, 2004; WTO Dec. 11, 2005
  • Senegal: Berne (Paris) Aug. 25, 1962; UCC Geneva July 9, 1974; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT May 18, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Serbia: Berne (Paris) Apr. 27, 1992; SAT Mar. 12, 2001; UCC Paris Sept. 11, 2001; UCC Geneva Nov. 11, 2001; Phonograms June 10, 2003; WCT June 13, 2003; WPPT June 13, 2003
  • Seychelles: Unclear
  • Sierra Leone: WTO July 23, 1995
  • Singapore: Bilateral May 18, 1987; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 21, 1998; FTA Jan. 1, 20042⁹; WCT Apr. 17, 2005; WPPT Apr. 17, 2005; SAT Apr. 27, 2005
  • Slovakia: Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1993; Phonograms Jan. 1, 1993; UCC Geneva Mar. 31, 1993; UCC Paris Mar. 31, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Slovenia: Berne (Paris) June 25, 1991; SAT Nov. 3, 1992; UCC Geneva Nov. 5, 1992; UCC Paris Nov. 5, 1992; WTO July 30, 1995; Phonograms Oct. 15, 1996; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Solomon Islands: WTO July 26, 1996
  • Somalia: Unclear
  • South Africa: Bilateral July 1, 1924; Berne (Brussels) Oct. 3, 1928; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Spain: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 10, 1895; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Phonograms Aug. 24, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Sri Lanka: Berne (Rome) July 20, 1959; UCC Geneva Jan. 25, 1984; UCC Paris Jan. 25, 1984; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Sudan: Berne (Paris) Dec. 28, 2000
  • Sudan, Republic of South: Unclear
  • Suriname: Berne (Paris) Feb. 23, 1977; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Swaziland: WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 14, 1998
  • Sweden: Berne (Paris) Aug. 1, 1904; Bilateral June 1, 1911; UCC Geneva July 1, 1961; Phonograms Apr. 18, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • Switzerland: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891⁷; UCC Geneva Mar. 30, 1956; UCC Paris Sept. 21, 1993; SAT Sept. 24, 1993; Phonograms Sept. 30, 1993; WTO July 1, 1995; WCT July 1, 2008; WPPT July 1, 2008
  • Syria: Berne (Paris) June 11, 2004
  • Tajikistan: UCC Geneva Aug. 28, 1992; Berne (Paris) Mar. 9, 2000; WCT Apr. 5, 2009; WPPT Aug. 24, 2011; Phonograms Feb. 26, 2013; WTO Mar. 2, 2013
  • Tanzania: Berne (Paris) July 25, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Thailand: Bilateral Sept. 1, 1921; Berne (Paris) July 17, 1931; Bilateral June 8, 1968; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Togo: Berne (Paris) Apr. 30, 1975; WTO May 31, 1995; WCT May 21, 2003; WPPT May 21, 2003; UCC Geneva May 28, 2003; UCC Paris May 28, 2003; Phonograms June 10, 2003; SAT June 10, 2003
  • Tonga: Berne (Paris) June 14, 2001; WTO July 27, 2007
  • Trinidad and Tobago: Berne (Paris) Aug. 16, 1988; UCC Geneva Aug. 19, 1988; UCC Paris Aug. 19, 1988; Phonograms Oct. 1, 1988; WTO Mar. 1, 1995; SAT Nov. 1, 1996; WCT Nov. 28, 2008; WPPT Nov. 28, 2008
  • Tunisia: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; UCC Geneva June 19, 1969; UCC Paris June 10, 1975; WTO Mar. 29, 1995
  • Turkey: Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1952; WTO Mar. 26, 1995; WCT Nov. 28, 2008; WPPT Nov. 28, 2008
  • Turkmenistan: None
  • Tuvalu: Unclear
  • Uganda: WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Ukraine: UCC Geneva Jan. 17, 1994; Berne (Paris) Oct. 25 1995; Phonograms Feb. 18, 2000; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002; WTO May 16, 2008
  • United Arab Emirates: WTO Apr. 10, 1996; Berne (Paris) July 14, 2004; WCT July 14, 2004; WPPT June 9, 2005
  • United Kingdom: Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891⁷; UCC Geneva Sept. 27, 1957; Phonograms Apr. 18, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Mar. 14, 2010; WPPT Mar. 14, 2010
  • United States of America: UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Phonograms Mar. 10, 1974; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; SAT Mar. 7, 1985; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Mar. 1, 1989; WCT Mar. 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002
  • Uruguay: BAC Mar. 18, 1920; Berne (Paris) July 10, 1967; Phonograms Jan. 18, 1983; UCC Geneva Apr. 12, 1993; UCC Paris Apr. 12, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WPPT Aug. 28, 2008; WCT June 5, 2009
  • Uzbekistan: Berne (Paris) Apr. 19, 2005
  • Vanuatu: Berne (Paris) Dec. 27, 2012; WTO Aug. 24, 2012
  • Venezuela: UCC Geneva Sept. 30, 1966; Phonograms Nov. 18, 1982; Berne (Paris) Dec. 30, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; UCC Paris Apr. 11, 1996
  • Viet Nam: Bilateral Dec. 23, 19983⁰; Bilateral Dec. 10, 2001; Berne (Paris) Oct. 26, 2004; Phonograms July 6, 2005; SAT Jan. 12, 2006; WTO Jan. 11, 2007
  • Yemen: Berne (Paris) July 14, 2008
  • Zambia: UCC Geneva June 1, 1965; Berne (Paris) Jan. 2, 1992; WTO Jan. 1, 1995
  • Zimbabwe: Berne (Rome) Apr. 18, 1980; WTO Mar. 5, 1995
Last modified on Tuesday, 13 May 2014 13:48
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